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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the introduction of restrictions on the level of window tinting permitted on public transport and informal paratransit vehicles. The purpose of this restriction is to ensure that illicit activities onboard vehicles (including sexual harassment) are not concealed by dark-tinted windows [3].

The minimum recommended Visible Light Transmitted (VLT) for side windows is 70%, while front windshields should be free of tinting, and rear windshields should have a minimum VLT of 75% [3].

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention only targets the portion of travel on board the vehicle.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Only motorized modes of transport are impacted by this intervention. This intervention does not apply to informal two-wheelers.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Minimal cost to replace non-compliant film (not essential for the film to be reinstalled)

  • Requires minimal skills to remove and replace tinting film

  • Allows enforcement officers and the general public to be able to more easily into vehicles

  • Window tinting and films do reduce heat gain in vehicles, and therefore in hot climates increased use of air-conditioning can result in decreased fuel efficiency (although that there are films that still block UV rays and heat without blocking light)

  • Reduction in other criminal activities

  • Perpetrators can be eyewitnessed more easily, and victims rescued from the situation more easily

  • Some operators may not want to remove the non-compliant film

  • The legislation would need to be passed to enable enforcement


Heavily tinted windows are problematic on public transport vehicles, especially in contexts where harassment and even abductions of women and children are prevalent since it is far less likely that passers-by will be able to see if occupants are in distress [3]. It is for this reason that some authorities have banned heavy tinting, or tinting films altogether [5].

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


The benefits ensue immediately upon implementation, and so long as the requirements are enforced, the benefits are maintained.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented from city level up.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

Removal (and replacement if desired) of tint film is a very simple task.

List of References