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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


Good lighting on public transport vehicles deters illegal activities, including sexual harassment, and increases the likelihood of others witnessing such activities, should they occur [1].

This intervention refers to the introduction of a requirement that all public and informal paratransit vehicles must have well-lit interiors (minimum of 150 lux) at all times.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention only targets the portion of travel on board the vehicle.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Only motorized modes of transport are impacted by this intervention. This intervention does not apply to informal two-wheelers.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Minimal Cost to add additional light fixtures

  • Upgrades can be performed in a matter of hours

  • Impact is immediate

  • Lighting needs to be shielded correctly from driver to prevent dazzling or windshield reflections which may cause distraction

  • Reduction in other criminal activities

  • Perpetrators can be eyewitnessed more easily, and victims rescued from the situation more easily

  • Some operators may not want to install additional lighting

  • The legislation would need to be passed to enable enforcement


A well-illuminated vehicle interior both acts as a deterrent to criminal activity and ensures that occupants are able to witness any such activities, including sexual harassment, should they occur [4].

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


The benefits ensue immediately upon implementation, and so long as the requirements are enforced, the benefits are maintained.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented from the city level up.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

Installation of additional lighting in vehicles can be done with ease.

List of References