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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the introduction of a requirement that all inner-city public and informal paratransit vehicles may not be equipped with radios or other amplified audio equipment.

This is because these have the potential to prevent the driver, surveillance operators, other passengers, or passers-by from hearing a distressed passenger calling out for assistance.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention only targets the portion of travel on board the vehicle.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All motorized modes of transport are impacted by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Ensures that distressed passengers calling for help can be heard by other vehicle occupants, command and control centre operators (if vehicle equipped with surveillance technology), and passers-by

  • Some passengers may object to the lack of music or entertainment or prefer vehicles that do not comply

  • Reduces cost of vehicle

  • Improves driver's ability to concentrate

  • Operators may not be willing to remove audio equipment


The bulk of literature concerning music on public transport and imposed restrictions related to driver distraction and nuisance to other passengers, rather than the possibility that victims of sexual harassment aboard such vehicles may not be heard. However, it is noted that nuisance behaviour on public transport vehicles, including the playing of music with violent lyrics, can undermine passengers’ sense of security [5].

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


This requirement can be introduced with immediate effect – the benefit remains so long as the requirement remains in place.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented from the city level up.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

Audio equipment can be removed or disabled with ease.

List of References