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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


Overcrowding and a lack of well-demarcated boundaries between passengers on public transport vehicles can increase the likelihood of sexual harassment [4].

This intervention refers to the introduction of a requirement that all public and informal paratransit vehicles must have individual demarcated seats for each passenger, rather than bench seating without any form of visual or tactile barrier.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention only targets the portion of travel on board the vehicle.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Only motorized modes of transport are impacted by this intervention. This intervention does not apply to informal two-wheelers.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Clearer boundaries between occupants can help reduce the likelihood of inappropriate touching

  • Individual seating may not be available for vehicle models currently in service

  • Helps to prevent vehicle overloading

  • Operators may not be willing to pay more for vehicles with Individual seating

  • Can reduce the number of occupants a vehicle can accommodate, diminishing buy-in from operators


Overcrowding on public transport increases the likelihood of sexual harassment [1]. Individual seating can help to reduce the potential for overcrowding.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Phased implementation is recommended, whereby only newly licensed vehicles must comply, to allow existing vehicles to remain in service until the end of their lifecycle.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented from the city level up.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

Ease of implementation is dependent on whether vehicle models typically chosen by operators are compatible with individual seating and whether transport operators are willing to retrofit their vehicles.

List of References



3. Cox, T., Houdmont, J., & Griffiths, A. (2006). Rail passenger crowding, stress, health and safety in Britain. Transportation Research Part A, 40, 244– 258.



4. https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/42f9b567-ac8f-4f43-b07d-e85165f248b7/SectorBrief_AddressingGBVH_Transport_July2020.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CVID=nddoZh0

5. Altman, I., & Vinsel, A.M. (1977). Personal space: An analysis of E.T. Hall’s proxemics framework. In I. Altman & J.P. Wohlwill (Eds.), Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research, Volume 2. Plenum Press: New York.

6. Andersen, P.A., & Liebowitz, K. (1978). Development and nature of the construct touch avoidance, Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 3, 89-106.

7. Evans, G.W., & Wener, R.E. (2007). Crowding and personal space invasion on the train: Please don’t make me sit in the middle. Journal of Environmental Psychology 27 , 90–94.

8. Hai, D.M., Khairullah, Z.Y., Coulmas, N. (1982). Sex and the single armrest: Use of personal space during air travel. Psychological Reports, 51 (3), 743-749.

9. Han, S.H., Jung, E.S., Jung, M., Kwahk, J., & Park, S. (1998). Psychophysical methods and passenger preferences of interior designs. Applied Ergonomics, 29 (6), 499-506.

10. Nicosia, G.J., Hyman, D., Karlin, R.A., Epstein, Y.M., & Aiello, J.R. (1979). Effects of bodily contact on reactions to crowding. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9 (6), 508-523.

11. Remland, M.S., Jones, T.S., & Brinkman, H. (1995). Interpersonal distance, body orientation, and touch: Effects of culture, gender, and age. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135 (3), 281-297.

12. Stradling, S., Carreno, M., Rye, T., & Noble, A. (2007). Passenger perceptions and the ideal urban bus journey experience. Transport Policy, 14, 283-292.

13. Tripathi, N. (2002). Seating preference and seat placement as indicators of privacy preference. Psychological Studies, 47 (1-3), 129-138.