Header banner MUST have an alt or title

The component interventionHeader has not been created yet or is not available for this content page type.

The component headerBackButton has not been created yet or is not available for this content page type.

General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the integration of an in-vehicle emergency communication system, which can comprise panic buttons that trigger audible or silent alarms – ideally linked to a centralised control centre and/or law enforcement agencies – as well as onboard CCTV cameras with remote access. Such systems allow distressed passengers to raise an alarm in the event of witnessing or experiencing sexual harassment, or other criminal activities.

Such systems can alert the driver, a control centre, and law enforcement agencies. More advanced systems can support remote monitoring of onboard CCTV cameras, and be integrated with live vehicle location tracking (using GPS) systems, akin to those described in the Digital Live Tracking and Tracing Tools intervention.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention only targets the portion of travel on board the vehicle.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Only motorized modes of transport are impacted by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Scalable to suit a wide range of budgets

  • Rollout can be staggered, enabling piloting of systems in different contexts to determine which combination of technologies has the most impact

  • Stable technology with much experience to learn from globally

  • The system is only effective if those receiving the signal are adequately trained and have the capacity to respond appropriately

  • Less effective in the context of bicycle, motorcycle, and tricycle taxis

  • Job creation

  • Reduction in other criminal activities

  • Can aid existing law enforcement agencies to exercise their mandate more effectively and efficiently

  • In larger cities with extensive transport networks more comprehensive systems can be costly to implement and operate

  • Civilians may resist increased surveillance

  • If the driver is the perpetrator, panic buttons that only alert the driver may endanger the victim more


While in-vehicle emergency communication systems have been found to be effective in many environments, it has been found to be less effective in others [5]. In addition, every context is different, and therefore piloting of systems in advance of the full-scale rollout is always advised.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of this intervention can be phased in over time. The benefits ensue immediately upon implementation and improve as perpetrators become aware of the greater likelihood of consequences to their behaviour (as a result of greater ease of reporting and identification). Should the system’s operations be stopped, the benefit is lost immediately.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at any scale required, however, is best if at a minimum is implemented across an entire transport network.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

Depending on the scale of functionality chosen, ease of implementation will vary. A panic button that only sends a signal to the vehicle driver is easy to implement. Once communication is implemented between vehicles and a central command and control centre, it becomes less easy to implement.

List of References