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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


Digital live tracking and tracing tools are used by public transport passengers to share their trips either with policing and surveillance agencies or concerned individuals, in order to enhance their personal safety for the duration of their trip. The trip progress of the passenger and any untoward delays can be monitored. Policing and surveillance agencies can use live tracking information to locate victims or perpetrators of sexual harassment incidents timeously and improve their response time.

Examples of tools used for live tracking and tracing include Whatsapp1, Tell Tale, SafetiPin [2], and Safe Bus [1]. The Delhi Police has created a WhatsApp number wherein women can send photographs of auto-rickshaws or taxis they board. The details are forwarded to the police control room and preserved for a week. More importantly, the WhatsApp group is integrated with a control room so that, in case of an emergency, the nearest police control room or mobile patrolling vehicle can rush to the spot.

My SafetiPin is an app that has a safety tracker which acts as a ‘personal guardian’, using GPS navigation to allow the tracking of a person who has turned their ‘Track Me’ button on. The developers of My SafetiPin explain its operations as follows: “If you are travelling alone and are feeling unsafe, you can send a tracking request to a friend or loved one and they can see your exact location. The person tracking will also get notifications if you are in an unsafe area (based on our data) if you have been stationary for an extended period of time or if you divert from your selected route. The tracking feature gives all control to the user, and they can choose when to be tracked and when not.”

Apps, such as Safe Bus and TellTale provide enhanced location information by combining vehicle and personal phone tracking. In case of a sexual harassment incident, real-time location data is available to the police and other authorised parties immediately.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
Although location sharing apps can be used anywhere, the services referred to here, focus on tracking passengers’ journeys in the transport system.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories can be positively impacted by this intervention, although certain live tracking systems might only focus on certain travel periods.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All modes can potentially be impacted by this intervention, although the focus is mainly on motorised transport modes where there are multiple occupants per vehicle.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users can make use of this service, it is not limited to one demographic.

SWOT Analysis

  • Easy to implement

  • Quick to implement

  • Accessible to all

  • Cost-effective

  • Targeted

  • Poor monitoring on the non-passenger end will render the intervention useless

  • Technology dependent

  • Linking this to the appropriate authorities and security agents can enhance the effectiveness of the intervention

  • It can become the norm in the future

  • Access to technology to make use of this intervention might not be as widespread as required, leaving some passengers without this benefit

  • If there is no perceived benefit to using this tool (i.e. the individual responsible for monitoring the trip does not pay attention or loses focus, passengers could lose faith in the tool and abandon its use)


The literature does not provide information on the effectiveness of this intervention, the ratings provided here are based on expert opinion.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of this intervention can happen quickly, and the effects will be immediate. The benefits will be materialised as long as the intervention is being used. As soon as the intervention is terminated, benefits will cease.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at any scale required.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

The low skill requirement and ease of use of the intervention makes it very easy to implement.

List of References

South America

South America

3. Ozaki, MN, 2016. Maria, Maria, Engaging women to report sexual harassment in public transport in Brazil, Masters Dissertation, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.



4. Priya Uteng, T., Allen, H., Turner, J., Cristea, L. ., Pickup, L. and Curtis, P. (2021) EMPOWER – Practical Tools for Decision Makers and Citizens to Tackle Sexual Harassment in African Urban Transport – Literature Review, Deliverable D1.1, Vectos (South) Ltd.