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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


The built environment plays an important role in affecting perceptions of safety when it comes to sexual harassment and assault, as well as affecting the number of incidents that occur. Safer spaces and more equal access to urban design can be ensured with women’s participation in the decision-making process, which can help promote gender-sensitive territorial planning and therefore social inclusion.

This intervention may be used to learn about women’s experiences within public spaces and incorporate (female) public participation in planning strategies, as well as increase the feeling of safety of all users in the urban environment.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would impact all areas, i.e. trips to and from stop/station/ranks and interchanges, public waiting for public transport vehicles, as well as patrons in public transport vehicles.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Including more women in the decision-making process can benefit all modes of transport.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users could be positively impacted by this intervention, as female experiences are included in the decision-making process.

SWOT Analysis

  • Only limited skills required

  • Scalable to suit budget and need for the resource

  • Improves female representation in the transport system from the top down

  • Does not guarantee that issues will be addressed in transport policy and change will occur

  • Target women preferences regarding safe and secure travel

  • Might not be as effective as envisioned. Depends on women's awareness and ability to argue the topic

  • If this is done just as a "rubber stamp" exercise, no impact will be made, needs buy-in from current decision-makers and genuine integration of the female perspective


Literature shows that females have an increased fear of crime. Since this intervention includes the views of females early in the decision-making process, it should be perceived positively by female passengers, as well as governing bodies who want to keep their public transport system safe. As there is a small amount literature to support this, confidence in these ratings is low.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is very easy to implement.

List of References



1. Muhoza, C., Wikman, A., & Chavez, R. D. (2021). Mainstreaming gender in urban public transport. Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute.



3. Listerborn, C. (2015). Feminist struggle over urban safety and the politics of space. European Journal of Women's Studies.