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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the digitisation of paratransit to operate through electronic transport platforms. Paratransit refers to transport services that supplement the larger public transport system, and transport services that generally don’t have fixed routes or timetables (e.g., minibus taxis in South Africa). The digitisation of these services will enable users to know when and where services will operate to and from, as well as to know information about their driver.

This aims to improve the safety and security of passengers, as they will no longer have to wait large amounts of time for the service to arrive if they know what the schedule is, and will be able to ensure that they only use safe routes.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would impact areas in the vehicle, at interchanges, and/or waiting for paratransit.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
This intervention could impact all modes of paratransit, including walking and cycling as modes used to access paratransit.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users could be positively impacted by this intervention. However, literature shows that women experience sexual harassment more than men, so more women are likely to need to benefit from this intervention. [1,2] Additionally, the elderly may be less likely to benefit as the use of technology might be a barrier to them.

SWOT Analysis

  • Allows passengers to plan their trips in a way that ensures their safety.

  • Scalable to suit budget and need

  • As soon as implementation stops, the benefits stop

  • Not effective in parts of the transport system where the intervention is not present

  • Information might be unreliable due to the ad hoc nature of paratransit and non-conformance by operators

  • To improve the passenger's overall safety when travelling using paratransit.

  • Improving the level of service offered by paratransit

  • Informal paratransit operators might be reluctant to digitise their information.

  • Data on informal paratransit may be hard to find in some countries.

  • Paratransit could lose some of its flexibility which is a key attribute of the mode


Passengers, especially females, feel safer when they don’t have to wait long times for public transport to arrive, and can plan when and where they need to go to wait for the service. Additionally, passengers appreciate the extra information given to them through this platform, which is a benefit. As there is little literature to support this, confidence in these ratings is weak.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


This intervention takes a while to implement, as the electronic platform needs to be developed and the data collected. Benefits begin to ensue once the platform has been finished and passengers become aware of it. The data needs to be updated frequently to ensure accuracy and usefulness.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a local or city level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is relatively easy to implement.

List of References

North America

North America

2. Kearl, H. 2018. A National Study on Sexual Harassment and Assault. Virginia, United States.