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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the training of staff to receive reports of sexual violence, assault, or harassment in the public transport environment. Victims of the above offences (mostly females) are generally reluctant to report such incidents, as they are often afraid or ashamed, or believe that there is no point in reporting. Proper training of staff to deal with such incident reports is an important step in increasing the number of incidents reported, as victims will be more likely to do so if they know that their reports will be seriously and correctly considered.

Important aspects of this intervention include detailing the time and duration of the training, which departments to include, the format of the training, and the format of the data collection.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would impact areas where staff are present, and therefore would not impact areas on the way to the stop/station/rank. Trained staff could be present at stations/stops/ranks, in the vehicle itself, or at interchanges.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention, depending on the scale of implementation and availability of staff.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Modes with formal infrastructure and/or organisational structure will be impacted.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users could be positively impacted by this intervention, as any user can report an incident. However, literature shows that women experience sexual harassment more than men, so more women are likely to need to report incidents than men. [1-3]

SWOT Analysis

  • Ensures staff are trained to record reported incidents well in order to help passengers

  • Establishes a system to report incidents

  • Scalable to suit budget and need

  • As soon as implementation stops, the benefits stop

  • Not effective in parts of the transport system where the intervention is not physically present

  • To encourage passengers to come forward and report incidents

  • To apprehend more offenders through reports of incidents

  • Female passengers might still feel uncomfortable/afraid of reporting incidents, even if the staff are available.


Literature shows that the very high amount of unreported incidents is due to a negative perception of reporting by females. Females who have been victims of sexual harassment often don’t report incidents as they believe that reporting is useless or too complicated, or because they are fearful or feel like they won’t be taken seriously. [2,4,5] As there is a small amount of literature to support this, confidence in these ratings is moderate.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of this intervention takes some time initially, as staff have to be trained. The benefits ensue after the training is finished and the trained staff are deployed. Benefits will continue to increase as passengers become more aware of the available staff. Unfortunately, if the intervention ends, so do the benefits.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a station or suburb level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention takes a moderate amount of effort to implement, as it requires skilled personnel, and it takes time.

List of References

North America

North America

  1. Kearl, H. 2018. A National Study on Sexual Harassment and Assault. Virginia, United States.

South America

South America

4. Quinones, L.M. 2020. Sexual harassment in public transport in Bogotá. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 139:54–69. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2020.06.018.