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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This type of intervention entails including the public in decision-making processes prior to enforcing or implementing public transport plans or policies. Public engagement is obtaining public feedback to assist government agencies, political leaders, and non-profit groups responsible for administering public policies and programs in making decisions [4]. Public engagement presents a number of challenges, three of which are highlighted here.

These include planning an event that is accessible to all key stakeholders, i.e., scheduling it at a convenient time and location, communicating with and receiving feedback from those in attendance, and pursuing continuous involvement that results in meaningful decision-making that reflects community values [4,5].

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention can impact all areas.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention, depending on the scale of implementation.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Depending on the planned implementation, policy or infrastructure, the involvement of public in planning will affect the mode of public transport dealt with.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users could be positively impacted by this intervention, this could result in reduced travel time for all affected passengers, regardless of their demographic. The goal of public engagement should be to address the requirements of as many stakeholders as possible, regardless of their differences [1].

SWOT Analysis

  • Can be designed to integrate the views, concerns, and issues of the public intothe decision-making process

  • Multiple methods of testimony allowed at public meetings

  • Public buys into decisions made

  • Budget restrictions may limit expenditure

  • Can cause delays

  • Virtual and in-person meetings (post covid)

  • A minimum of two (2) weeks for advance notice of public meetings required

  • Varied meeting times are needed, in order to allow for the participation of people with different work/school schedules to attend

  • All in-person meetings in locations easily accessible by public transit.


This intervention can be quite effective since it allows some diverse audiences to participate in decision-making, shift power, and create an equal process; this requires hiring trustworthy advocates from the communities you are attempting to target to help you with this intervention [7].

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementing this intervention may take time depending on the solution employed. Benefits arise while the intervention is carried out and continue to accumulate as projects are implemented.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

All areas could be impacted depending on what is being implemented

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention can take a significant amount of effort to implement, and it may take some time to implement and see the benefits.

List of References



1. Phala SV. Assessment of Public Participation Process in the Comprehensive Integrated Transport Planning Process of The City of Johannesburg : 2003-2013. 2019;(December):2003-2013.



4. Quick; Kathryn S., Zhao Z. Suggested Design and Management Techniques for Enhancing Public Engagement in Transportation Policymaking. 2011:52.

5. Wagner J. Measuring performance of public engagement in transportation planning. Transp Res Rec. 2013;(2397):38-44. doi:10.3141/2397-05

6. Griffin GP, Stoeltje G, Geiselbrecht T, Simek C, Ettelman B, Metsker-Galarza M. Performance Measures for Public Participation Methods. 2018.

7. Marisa Denker, Mike Flynn, Samantha Donovan, Theresa Carr AZ. It’s Time for Public Participation to Evolve With Transportation Planning. https://www.planetizen.com/features/115279-its-time-public-participation-evolve-transportation-planning. Published 2021. Accessed February 7, 2022.