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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


When an incident of sexual harassment or assault occurs, it is essential that a convenient, easy method of reporting is readily available to both victims and bystanders. Protocols for raising complaints by whistle-blowers working within the public transport system should include details on whom to report to, the format of receiving the complaint, and escalation procedures. Management should be au fait with dealing with such instances in a discreet and fair manner.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
Only the areas that fall within the formal transport system (and not is ingress and egress) are affected.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All modes of transport can be affected by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Scalable to suit wide range of budgets

  • Rollout can be fast and effective

  • Stable methodology with much experience to learn from globally

  • The system is only effective if those receiving the complaints are adequately trained and have the capacity to respond appropriately

  • Less effective in the context of informal transport

  • Nabbing of perpetrators and reduction in criminal activities more broadly

  • Can aid existing law enforcement agencies to exercise their mandate more effectively and efficiently

  • can be used as a mapping tool for place, time, and types of incidence occurrence

  • In larger cities with extensive bureaucratic networks, a large no. of of actors are involved to establish such protocols

  • If proper follow up is not undertaken and reported to the genral population, trust in such systems will quickly diminish


Low level of confidence in these ratings if reporting is cumbersome. But high confidence if the protocols are clear and reporting is easy. Low level of perception of effectiveness (by whistle-blowers) if it leads to further harassment of the whistle-blowers.

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


This requirement can be introduced with immediate effect – the benefit remains so long as the requirement remains in place.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented from the city level up.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

Due to its low resource requirements and short implementation timeframe, this intervention is rated very easy to implement.

List of References



1. Valan, M.L. 2020. Victimology of Sexual Harassment on Public Transportation: Evidence from India. Journal of Victimology and Victim Justice. 3(1):24–37. DOI: 10.1177/2516606920927303.

2. Bhatt, A., Menon, R. & Khan, A. 2015. WOMEN’S SAFETY IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT A Pilot Initiative in Bhopal. The WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities Disclaimer.

3. United Nations Population Fund Sri Lanka. 2017. SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON PUBLIC BUSES AND TRAINS IN SRI LANKA. DOI: 10.1080/10463356.2012.11883630.

North America

North America

4. Dunckel-Graglia, A. (2015). Finding Mobility: Women Negotiating Fear and Violence in Mexico City’s Public Transit System. Journal of Feminist Geography, 23(5).