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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the implication of clear sightlines at underpasses and subways. Sightlines need to be carefully designed in transit environments, with emphasis on the following characteristics:

  • using ‘open’ fences rather than solid walls where possible, to enhance the potential for formal and informal surveillance [2,3]

  • landscape design that does not provide places for people to hide, for example by using slow-growing shrubs that cannot grow too large, and prickly shrubs that minimise opportunities for concealment [2,3]

  • creating clear sightlines by blocking off recesses, use of convex mirrors or wide pillars at corners, and use of clear glazing [2,3]

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would primarily impact the commuters travelling to and from public transport stations/interchanges. Sustainable planning and designs would need to be incorporated into public transport stations and hub design. [1-3,6-8]

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All modes can be impacted by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Perceived to be effective

  • Long term benefits once installed

  • Takes significant time and cost to be implemented

  • Crime reduction

  • Improves safety

  • Greater incentive to use non-motorised transport and public transport

  • Poor upkeep can negate benefits


Numerous literature sources indicate this to be an effective measure in improving public safety, with the effectiveness of the measure considered high regarding personal security, in this and other fields. Both female passengers and governing bodies rate the effectiveness of this intervention as high. [1-3,6-8]

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of the intervention is a time-intensive process, with its benefits only being fully realised upon its full implementation. The benefits are long-term, yet will require constant maintenance and upkeep for full functionality.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a local or city level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is moderately easy to implement, as it requires a significant level of skilled services for the planning, design, construction and maintenance and demands high capital and time resource levels.

List of References