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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the implication of clear sightlines in transport hubs and interchanges. Research revealed that the combination of limited access, a higher level of visibility, and natural surveillance in a train station environment, provides a heightened sense of security amongst travellers, discouraging misconduct. Thus, several early concepts were aimed to regulate the access and maximise visibility by incorporating those findings into the designs. Increased use of transparent materials enables ample natural light in sheltered areas and removes any potential hiding areas or blind spots, particularly around ticket machines where money handling is involved. Rational planning of entrances and exits provides railway stations with a more orderly flow of people with minimal opportunities for trouble. [2]

Sightlines need to be carefully designed in transit environments, with emphasis on the following characteristics:

  • using ‘open’ fences rather than solid walls where possible, to enhance the potential for formal and informal surveillance [2,3]

  • landscape design that does not provide places for people to hide, for example by using slow-growing shrubs that cannot grow too large, and prickly shrubs that minimise opportunities for concealment [2,3]

  • creating clear sightlines by blocking off recesses, use of convex mirrors or wide pillars at corners, and use of clear glazing [2,3]

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would primarily impact the commuters travelling through public transport stations/interchanges. Sustainable planning and designs would need to be incorporated into public transport stations and hub design. [1-6]

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All motorised transport modes can be impacted by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Perceived to be effective

  • It is easy to implement the core principals

  • Long term benefits

  • Might be difficult to retrofit existing infrastructure

  • Crime reduction

  • improve safety

  • Poor maintenance may render improvements ineffective

  • No guarantees of success


Numerous literature sources indicate this to be an effective measure in improving public safety, with the effectiveness of the measure considered high regarding personal security, in this and other fields. Both female passengers and governing bodies rate the effectiveness of this intervention as high. [1-3,5-7]

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of the intervention is a time-intensive process, with its benefits only being fully realised upon its full implementation. The benefits are long-term, yet will require constant maintenance and upkeep for full functionality.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a local or city level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is moderately easy to implement, as it requires a significant level of skilled services for the planning, design, construction, and maintenance.

List of References



3. Stafford, J. (2003). Safer travel by design: reducing crime on public transport Briefing.

4. van Harten, H. (n.d.). Environmental design and the perception of safety.