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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the development of sustainably designed and maintained sidewalks, which are void of obstructions, accommodate pedestrian traffic, and encourage increased use. Additionally, in order to create a safe environment for users, sidewalks should be well-lit with no dark spaces.

This decreases the number of locations where potential perpetrators can wait without being seen by the sidewalk users, therefore making the sidewalk safer. Such sidewalks can form part of a larger feeder network to and from public transport hubs or be used as standalone routes between origins and destinations.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would primarily impact the commuters travelling to and from public transport stations/interchanges. Sustainable sidewalk designs would need to be incorporated into public transport stations and hub design. [1-3].

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
The primary beneficiaries of this intervention would be individuals who use walking and cycling as their primary modal choice, as well as those using the infrastructure to travel to and from public transport hubs. However, increased use may encourage travellers to utilise public transport instead of relying on private transport [1,5,6].

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Perceived to be effective

  • Scalable to suit budget and need for the resource

  • It is easy to disseminate, encourage widespread use, and available to all types of passengers, for all types of trips, any time of the day, and on any mode

  • Long term benefits

  • Takes significant time and cost to be implemented

  • Crime reduction

  • Improve safety

  • Greater incentive to use non-motorized transport and public transport

  • Reliant on collaborations from several parties for full functionality.


Numerous literature sources indicate this to be an effective measure in improving public safety with the effectiveness of the measure being considered high. Both female passengers and governing bodies rate the effectiveness of this intervention as high [5-7].

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of the intervention is a time-intensive process, with its benefits only being fully realised upon its full implementation. The benefits are long-term, yet will require constant maintenance and upkeep for full functionality.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a local or city level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is difficult to implement, as it requires a high level of skilled services for the planning, design, construction, and maintenance.

List of References

North America

North America

4. Dogan, T., Samaranayake, S., & Saraf, N. (2018). Urbano: A new tool to promote mobility-aware urban design, active transportation modeling, and access analysis for amenities and public transport.

5. DeCoursey, W. J., & Rothwell, J. (2016). Defining and Quantifying State of Good Repair (SGR) for the Pedestrian Network External Project Manager Heather Dunigan, Principal Planner Wilmington Area Planning Council (WILMAPCO)

6. Osama, A., & Sayed, T. (2017). Evaluating the impact of connectivity, continuity, and topography of sidewalk network on pedestrian safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 107, 117–125.



8. Org, W. (n.d.). THE 8 PRINCIPLES OF SIDEWALKS Building more active cities.

9. Walkways, Sidewalks, and Public Spaces FHWA COURSE ON BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN TRANSPORTATION. (n.d.).