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General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


This intervention refers to the implication and management of free-to-use public restrooms, which are clean, well-maintained, well-lit, and have an attendant able to assist. Access to public restrooms may be considered a requirement of human rights to sanitation, however, the experiences of the majority of their users evoke negative associations with the services.

For public restrooms that are holistically incorporated in the structure of the environment, properly located, sufficiently marked, well-organised, and designed its benefits may allow for greater use of public spaces.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
Access to public restrooms will be beneficial in public spaces, namely at fixed infrastructures such as Public transport hubs/stations as well as at busy nodes/interchanges.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All motorised modes could potentially be impacted by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Once installed, the benefits are long-lasting if maintenance is done properly

  • Improves customer satisfaction

  • Not effective in parts of the transport system where the intervention is not physically present

  • Overcome negative public image

  • Crime reduction

  • Improve safety at the public transport station

  • Improved access to personal hygiene/sanitary measures

  • Poor management of the resource will render the benefits void


The intervention is considered a positive and necessary service as it forms part of a cohesive public transport system. Literature sources confidently indicate this to be an effective measure in improving public safety, with numerous studies reaching the same conclusion with regards to effectiveness. As a result, the level of confidence is high.1-6 Irrespective of intervention implementation, a percentage of female passengers will forgo its benefits, as they will avoid the use of public restrooms completely. [4]

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of this intervention can happen quickly and be ramped up over time, depending on the available funds or demand. The benefits ensue immediately upon implementation, once maintenance and associated services cease, the corresponding benefits are foregone.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a local or city level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is moderately easy to implement, it requires skills and capital to provide additional infrastructure. Once the infrastructure is in place, minimal training or skills are required in training sanitary staff and restroom attendees.

List of References



3. Tinggi, F., Rahim, R., Priyanto, S., & Friman Professor of Karlstad, M. (2016). Topic 03 Social and environmental aspects of transportation FSTPT ANALYSIS EASE-OF-USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES BASED ON CUSTOMER PERCEPTION BEFORE, ONBOARD, AND AFTER THE JOURNEY (Case Study: Commuter Line Jabodetabek Area/ KRL) (Issue 2).

4. Reynolds, W. S., Kowalik, C., Kaufman, M. R., Dmochowski, R. R., & Fowke, J. H. (2020). Women’s perceptions of public restrooms and the relationships with toileting behaviors and bladder symptoms: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Urology, 204(2), 310–315.



5. Gekoski A., Gray J., Horvath M., Edwards M. A.H., Emirali S., Adler, J. R. (2015) What Works’ in Reducing Sexual Harassment and Sexual Offences on Public Transport Nationally and Internationally: A Rapid Evidence Assessment, London: British Transport Police and Department for Transport. 2015.

6. Ramos, S., Vicente, P., Passos, A. M., Costa, P., & Reis, E. (2019). Perceptions of the public transport service as a barrier to the adoption of public transport: A qualitative study. Social Sciences, 8(5).

North America

North America

7. Qiu, K. (2018)“Hoilet System”-A Way to Improve Experience in High Traffic Female Public Restrooms in the U.S