Header banner MUST have an alt or title

The component interventionHeader has not been created yet or is not available for this content page type.

The component headerBackButton has not been created yet or is not available for this content page type.

General Overview

EICS Framework


Region of Reference

  • AfricaAfrica
  • AsiaAsia
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • EuropeEurope
  • North-AmericaNorth-America
  • South-AmericaSouth-America
  • WorldWorld


Mixed-use development creates inclusive, connected communities. In mixed-use areas, you can find housing, restaurants, services, schools, cultural facilities, parks, and more. This connectivity reduces the need for private vehicles, thus increasing the viability of public transport, walking, and bicycling [6].

As there are various activities located near each other, which operate at different times of day, this reduces the risk of isolation and increases the potential for witnesses to see infractions, inhibiting potential perpetrators from freely pursuing their crimes.

Types of Impact

Area Impacted

  • To/from the stop/station/rank
  • Waiting for train/bus/paratransit
  • In the vehicle
  • At interchanges
This intervention would impact the commuters at transport stations/interchanges, with sustainable mixed-use urban planning and designs needing to be incorporated into public transport systems.

Time of Day of Impact

  • Day-time travel
  • Night-time travel
  • Peak-time travel
  • Off peak-time travel
All travel time categories could be positively impacted by this intervention.

Mode Impacted

  • Bus
  • Train
  • Rideshare
  • 4 wheelers informal
  • 3 wheelers informal
  • 2 wheelers informal
  • Cycling
  • Walking
All modes could potentially be impacted by this intervention.

Demographic impacted

  • Girls
  • Boys
  • Adult Women
  • Men
  • Elderly Women
All public transport users will be positively impacted by this intervention.

SWOT Analysis

  • Perceived to be effective

  • It is easy to disseminate, encourage widespread use, and available to all types of passengers, for all types of trips, any time of the day, and on any mode

  • Long term benefits

  • Takes significant planning, time and cost to be implemented

  • Crime reduction

  • Improve safety

  • Reliant on collaborations from several parties for full functionality


Several literature sources confidently indicate this to be an effective measure in improving public transport systems by reducing crime and increasing personal levels of safety. The effectiveness of the measure is considered high with both female passengers and governing bodies rating the effectiveness of this intervention as high. [1-5]

  • Perception by (female) passengers
  • Perception by governing bodies
  • Level of confidence in these ratings


Implementation of the intervention is a time-intensive process, with its benefits only being fully realised upon its full implementation. The benefits are long-term, yet will require constant maintenance and upkeep for full functionality.

Implementation timeframe

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Timeframe to realise benefits

  • 0-1 year
  • 1-3 years
  • >3 years

Scale of Implementation

This intervention can be implemented at a local or city level.

Station or

Ease of Implementation

This intervention is difficult to implement, as it requires a high level of skilled services for the planning, design, construction and maintenance.

List of References



1. University College London. (2005). Designing Mixed-use Urban Environments: The Social and Environmental Benefits.

2. Evans, G. (2014). Living in the City. In Wellbeing (pp. 1–28). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3. Ryckewaert, M., Zaman, J., & de Boeck, S. (2021). Variable arrangements between residential and productive activities: 6Conceiving mixed‐use for urban development in Brussels. Urban Planning, 6(3), 334–349.

4. Hoppenbrouwer, E., & Louw, E. (2005). Mixed-use development: Theory and practice in Amsterdam’s Eastern Docklands. European Planning Studies, 13(7), 967–983.

North America

North America

5. Carmelina Bevilacqua, Jusy Calabrò, & Carla Maione. (2013). The Role of Community in Urban Regeneration: Mixed Use Areas Approach in the USA. CORP - Competence Center of Urban and Regional Planning.



6. Zamorano, L., Kulpa, E. (2014). People-Oriented Cities: Mixed-Use Development Creates Social and Economic Benefits. World Resource Institute